Chapter 1. One-Tenth of America's Land
1. The early regional research project was the Upper Midwest Economic Study. Summary publications included James M. Henderson and Anne O. Kreuger, National Growth and Economic Change in the Upper Midwest (Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 1965); John R. Borchert and Russell B. Adams, Projected Urban Growth in the Upper Midwest (Minneapolis: Upper Midwest Economic Study, 1964).
2. Douglas W. Johnson, Paul R. Picard, and Bernard Quinn, Churches and Church Membership in the United States, 1971 (Washington, D.C.: Glenmary Research Center, 1974); Gove Hambidge, ed., Climate and Man: Yearbook of Agriculture (Washington, D.C.: U.S. Department of Agriculture, 1941).
3. John R. Borchert and Russell B. Adams, Trade Centers and Trade Areas of the Upper Midwest (Minneapolis: Upper Midwest Economic Study, 1963), 25; Clay Kaufman, Manager, WCCO Radio, personal communication on Twins and Vikings networks, Minneapolis, 1983; Fred M. Shelley and Kevin F. Cartin, "The Geography of Baseball Fan Support," North American Culture I (1984), 77-95.
4. FAA Statistical Handbook of Aviation (Washington, D.C.: U.S. Dept. of Transportation, Federal Aviation Administration, 1981), tables 4.9-4.11, "Total Air Departures Performed, 12 months ended December 31,1980"; John R. Borchert, "America's Changing Metropolitan Regions," in John Fraser Hart, ed., Regions of the United States (New York: Harper and Row, 1972), 352-73.
5. Clarence W. Nelson, Reflections from History: First Half-Century, Minneapolis Federal Reserve Bank (Minneapolis: Federal Reserve Bank of Minneapolis, 1964); Harry P. Willis, The Federal Reserve System: Legislation, Organization, and Operation (New York: Ronald Press, 1923), vol. 2, ch. 23.
6. Torsten B. Hagerstrand, "The Domain of Human Geography,"inRichard). Chorley, ed., Directions in Geography (London: Methuen, 1973), 68-87, is a concise discussion of the problem of linking millions of individual, self-centered geographies and lifetimes to the regions and epochs which are abstracted and aggregated from individual experiences.
7. Hambidge, Climate and Man, 701-47. Data on annual range of temperature are synthesized from map of average January temperature (705) and average July temperature (704); Alfred Glueck, Minnesota and the Manifest Destiny of the Canadian Northwest (Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 1965).
8. Richard Boyer and David Savageau, Places Rated Retirement Guide (Chicago: Rand McNally, 1984). Map of "Where not to retire" is based on distances from 107 places selected for analysis in the guide because they "reflect the expressed preference of many mobile retirees." (Quotation is from an advertisement for the guide in Parade magazine, St. Paul Sunday Pioneer Press, June 4,1984). The map, "National Image — College Students," is synthesized from maps in Peter R. Gould and Rodney White, Mental Maps (Baltimore: Penguin Books, 1974), 95, 99, 101.
9. Upper Midwest environmental regions are synthesized from maps in Arch C. Gerlach ed., National Atlas of the United States, U.S. Department of the Interior, Geological Survey, 19 (Washington, D.C.), 55-128; and from the map by Erwin Raisz, Landforms of the United States (Cambridge, Mass., 1957).
10. John R. Borchert, "The Climate of the Central North American Grassland," Annals of the Association of American Geographers 40 (March, 1950), 1-49; and Borchert, "Regional Differences in World Atmospheric Circulation," Annals of the Association of American Geographers 43 (March 1953), 14-26; F. Kenneth Hare and Morley K. Thomas, Climate Canada (Toronto: Wiley Publishers of Canada, 1974), 70, 75.
11. Clifford L. Lord and Elizabeth H. Lord, Historical Atlas of the United States (New York: Henry Holt, 1953). Pages 104-23 present a concise summary of the advance of the frontier and the patterns of foreign-born population in the period of development of the Upper Midwest.
12. John R. Borchert, "American Metropolitan Evolution," Geographical Review 57 (July 1967), 301-32.
Chapter 2. Dissolving the Wilderness
13. Background for the interpretation of maps in this section came from the following works and atlases: Theodore C. Blegen, Minnesota: A History of the State (Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 1963); Lord and Lord, Historical Atlas of the United States; William F. Laney, Wisconsin: A Story of Progress (New York: Prentice Hall, 1940); Michael P. Malone and Richard B. Roeder, Montana: A History of Two Centuries (Seattle: University of Washington Press, 1976); John R. Milton, South Dakota: A History (New York: Norton, 1975); Edward Van Dyke Robinson, Early Economic Conditions and the Development of Agriculture in Minnesota (Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Studies in the Social Sciences, No. 3, 1915); Elwyn W. Robinson, History of North Dakota (Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 1961); Herbert S. Schell, History of
South Dakota (Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 1961); David J. Wishart, "The Changing Position of the Frontier Settlements on the Eastern Margin of the Great Plains, 1854-1890," Professional Geographer 21 (May 1968), 153-57; Writer's Project of the Federal Works Progress Administration, Iowa: A Guide to the Hawkeye State (New York: The Viking Press, 1938); W.P.A., Michigan: A Guide to the Wolverine State (New York: Oxford University Press, 1941); W.P.A., Minnesota: A State Guide (New York: Viking Press, 1938); W.P.A., North Dakota: A Guide to the Northern Prairie State (1938; reprint, New York: Oxford University Press, 1950); W.P.A., South Dakota: A Guide to the State (1938; revision, New York: Hastings House, 1952); W.P.A., Wisconsin: A Guide to the Badger State (New York: Duell, Sloan, and Pierce, 1941); John R. Borchert and Neil C. Gustafson, Atlas of Minnesota Resources and Settlement (Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Center for Urban and Regional Affairs and Minnesota State Planning Agency, 1980); Charles W. Collins, Atlasoflowa(Madison, Wis.: American Publishing, 1974); Collins, Atlas of Wisconsin (Madison, Wis.: American Publishing, 1972); Lowell R. Goodman, The Atlas of North Dakota (Fargo: North Dakota Center for Regional Studies, 1976); Edward P. Hogan, Atlas of South Dakota (Dubuque, Iowa: Kendall-Hunt Publishing, 1970); Arthur H. Robinson, Atlas of Wisconsin (Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 1974); Lawrence M. Sommers, ed., Atlas of Michigan (East Lansing: Michigan State University Press, 1977); Robert L. Taylor, J. Edie, and Charles F. Gritzner, Montana in Maps (Bozeman: Montana State University, 1974).
14. Joel F. Overholser, World's Innermost Port! Fort Benton (Ft. Benton, Mont.: River Press Publishing Co., 1980), is a rich collection of historical photos, recollections, and newspaper stories of Ft. Benton's most knowledgeable local historian); Jerome E. Petsche, The Steamboat Bertrand (Washington, D.C.: U.S. National Park Service, 1974), is a detailed account of the cargo on a boat that sank in the spring of 1865 en route from St. Louis to Ft. Benton, and that was entombed in silt on the floodplain and excavated in 1969.
15. Paul D. McDermott and Ronald E. Grim, "Maps of the Mullan Road," Washington, D.C., U.S. National Archives, 1974 (typescript).
16. Richard S. Prosser, Rails to the North Star (Minneapolis: Dillon Press, 1966).
17. Clarence A. Glassrud, Roy Johnson's Red River Valley (Fargo, No. Dak.: Red River Valley Historical Society, 1982); Betty M. Madsen and Brigham D. Madsen, North to Montana! (Salt Lake City: University of Utah Press, 1980); Helen M. White, Ho! For the Gold Fields: Northern Overland
Wagon Trains of the 1860s (St. Paul: Minnesota Historical Society, 1966); State Highway Commission of Wisconsin, A History of Wisconsin Highway Development, 1835-1945 (Madison, 1945).
18. Data are from Compendium of the U.S. Census 1870 (Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1872).
19. David A. Walker, Iron Frontier (St. Paul: Minnesota Historical Society Press, 1979); Arnold R. Alanen, "The Planning of Company Communities in the Lake Superior Mining Region," Journal of the American Planning Association 45 (1979), 256-78.
20. Frank Eliel, Eirne and Lambert Eliel, Beaverhead Revisited (Dillon, Mont.: Authors and Finefrock Publishing, no date); John N. DeHaas, Historic Buildings in Bannack and Dillon (Dillon, Mont.: Ghost Town Preservation Society, 1976).
21. Edwin T. Denig, Five Indian Tribes of the Upper Missouri (Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 1961), is the memoirs of an educated, careful observer of natural environment and Indian life, a factor at Ft. Union between 1833 and 1855 who also raised and educated four children by two Assiniboine wives; Lucille M. Kane, ed. and trans., Military Life in Dakota: the Journal ofPhillipe Regis de Trobriand (St. Paul: Alvord Memorial Commission and Minnesota Historical Society, 1951); U.S. Senate, Reports of Exploration and Surveys to Determine the Most Practicable and Economical Route for a Railroad from the Mississippi River to the Pacific Ocean, vol. 1, 33rd Congress, 2d Session (Washington, D.C.: Beverly Tucker, Printer, 1855); U.S. Department of Dakota, Roster of Troops, Department of Dakota, (Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1871); Horace E. Stevens, "A Trip from Jamestown to Bismarck in 1872," personal communication from files of Elizabeth Oakes Clarke, Scandia, Minnesota, 1983; Fred Sturnegk (draughtsman and quartermaster, Department of Dakota), Rice's Sectional Map of Dakota (St. Paul: St. Paul Lithography and Engineering, 1872); Table of Distances in the Department of Dakota, compiled by the chief quartermaster, Department of Dakota, (n.p., 1875); Raphael P. Thain, Notes Illustrating the Military Geography of the United States, 1813-1880 (Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1881; reprint, Austin: University of Texas Press, 1979); Jos. S. Wilson and Theodore Franks, Map of the United States and Territories (Washington, D.C.: U.S. Department of the Interior, General Land Office, 1866).
22. Jeanne Kay, "John Lowe, Green Bay Trader," Wisconsin Magazine of History 64 (Autumn 1980), 3-27; Roger L. Nichols, "The Black Hawk War in Retrospect,"
Wisconsin Magazine of History 65 (Summer 1982), 239-46; Anthony F. C. Wallace, "Prelude to Disaster: The Course of Indian-White Relations Which Led to the Black Hawk War of 1832," Wisconsin Magazine of History 65 (Summer 1982), 247-88.
23. Walter J. Harris, Checjuamegon Country (Fayetteville, Ark.: Walter J. Harris, 1976); William Gray Purcell, St. Croix Trail Country (Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 1967).
24. Borchert, "American Metropolitan Evolution," Geographical Review 57 (July 1967), 301-32.
25. Net migration was estimated using state population changes together with birth and death rates from U. S. Bureau of the Census, Historical Statistics of the United States, Colonial Times to 1970, (Washington, D.C., 1975). Gross migration, as well as domestic and foreign components, was estimated from tables showing state of residence at time of census by state of birth. Figures for Upper Midwest parts of Iowa, Michigan, and Wisconsin were interpolated from state totals.
26. Rand McNally World Atlas (Chicago: Rand McNally, [ca. 1895]); Rand McNally Family Atlas of the World (Chicago: Rand McNally, [ca. 1891]).
27. Pioneer Atlas of the American West (Chicago: Rand McNally, 1956), 10-11.
28. Patrick Donn, TheSoo Line (Seattle: Superior Publishing, 1979); W. Kaye Lamb, History of the Canadian Pacific Railway (New York: Macmillan, 1977); Albro Martin, James J. Hill and the Opening of the Northwest (New York: Oxford University Press, 1976); Lloyd J. Mercer, Railroads and Land Grant Policy (New York: Academic Press, 1982); Gustavus Myers, History of the Great American Fortunes (New York: Modern Library, 1936). The latter three works provide insight into Hill's organizational talent and energy, the remarkable accomplishment of building his transcontinental system without a federal land grant, and the controversies stirred by his actions.
29. Vernon S. Hoist, A Study of the 1876 Bismarck to Deadwood Trail (Sturgis, So. Dak.: Butte County Historical Society, 1983); Lee Silliman, "The Carroll Trail: Utopian Enterprise," Montana: The Magazine of Western History 24 (April 1974), 2-17.
30. Agnes M. Larson, History of the White Pine Industry in Minnesota (Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 1949).
31. Schell, History of South Dakota, ch. 9-10; U.S. Department of Interior, National Park Service, Big Hole Battlefield (Washington, D.C.), is an undated folder of maps of battle locations and route of Nez Perce effort to reach Canada from eastern Oregon and llnir sunvnder in the Bear Paws in 1877; Richard H. Weil, "Loss and Reconstruction of Sioux Tribal Lands in South Dakota," paper read at meetings of the Association of American Geographers, 1983; Voices from Wounded Knee (Rooseveltown, N.Y.: Mohawk Nation, 1973), is a chronology of historic events and later symbolic importance of the place.
32. LeRoy Bennett, "The Buffalo Bone Commerce of the Northern Plains," North Dakota History 39 (Winter 1972) 23-42; M. I. McCreight, Buffalo Bone Days (Sykesville, Pa.: M. I. McCreight, 1939).
Chapter 3. Mature Settlement System
33. R. Newell Searle, History of the Boundary Waters Wilderness Area (St. Paul: Minnesota Historical Society, 1984); Susan L. Flader, ed., The Great Lakes Forest: an Environmental and Social History (Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 1983).
34. John C. Hudson, Plains Country Towns (Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 1985).
35. U.S. Census, Historical Statistics Series Q 12-22, 707; Q 331-45, 732-33; Q 530-41, 762-63; Q 251-63, 722.
36. U.S. Census, Historical Statistics, Series A 195-209, 24-36; C 15-24, 89-92; Canada Today/Aujourd'hui 16 (December 1985), 6.
37. Harold B. Allen, The Linguistic Atlas of the Upper Midwest (Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press), vol. 1,1973; vol. 2,1975; vol. 3,1976 (maps reflect regional patterns of ethnic immigration); Isaiah Bowman, "Jordan Country," Geographical Review 21 (1931), 22-55; Robert M. Finley, "A Budgeting Approach to the Question of Homestead Size on the Plains," Agricultural History 42 (1968), 109-14; June D. Holmquist, ed., They Chose Minnesota (St. Paul: Minnesota Historical Society, 1981); John C. Hudson, "Migration to an American Frontier," Annals of the Association of American Geographers 66 (1976), 242-65; Hudson, "Two Dakota Homestead Frontiers," Annals of the Association of American Geographers 63 1973), 442-62; Hildegard B. Johnson, "King Wheat in Southeastern Minnesota: A Case Study of Pioneer Agriculture," Annals of the Association of American Geographers 47 (1957), 350-62; Grace Lee Nute, Rainy River Country (St. Paul: Minnesota Historical Society, 1950); James P. Shannon, Catholic Colonization on the Western Frontier (New Haven: Yale University Press, 1957); William C. Sherman, Prairie Mosaic: An Ethnic Atlas of Rural North Dakota (Fargo: North Dakota Institute for Regional Studies, 1983); Douglas Marshall, "Minnesota: The U.N. in Miniature," a map reprinted from the Minneapolis Star and Tribune, Aug. 28, 1949, Territorial Centennial Section, 1.
38. Hiram Drache, The Day of the Bonanza (Fargo: North Dakota Institute for Regional Studies, 1964).
39. Mildred L. Hartsough, The Twin Cities as a Metropolitan Market (Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Series in the Social Sciences, No. 18, 1925); Lucille M. Kane, The Waterfall that Built a City (St. Paul: Minnesota Historical Society, 1966).
40. Schedules of Mail Trains, No, 357, St. Paul: 10th Division, U.S. Post Office Department, June 20, 1927; No. 465, Chicago: 6th Division, November 1, 1924; No. 202, Seattle: 13th Division, April 1,1924 (courtesy of Dr. Frank Scheer, Railway Mail Service Library, 18 East Rosemont Ave., Alexandria, Virginia).
41. Helen Clapesattle, The Doctors Mayo (Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 1941).
42. Sinclair Lewis, Main Street (New York: Harcourt Brace, 1921); Vilhelm Moberg, The Emigrants (New York: Popular Library, 1951); O. E. Rolvag, Giants in the Earth (New York: Harper, 1931).
43. American Automobile Association, Official Road Map of Michigan, Northern Peninsula (Washington, D.C., 1926); official state highway maps, prepared and published by the State Highway Commissions of Iowa (Des Moines, 1928), Minnesota (St. Paul, 1925), South Dakota (Pierre, 1926), North Dakota (Bismarck, 1925), Wisconsin (Madison, 1925); Rand McNally Junior Auto Trails Map of Montana (Chicago: Rand McNally, 1925).
44. Borchert, "American Metropolitan Evolution," Geographical Review 57 (July 1967), 301-32.
Chapter 4. Turbulence and Continuity
45. National data on numbers of vehicles by type are from U.S. Census, Historical Statistics and Statistical Abstract for years subsequent to 1970.
46. See n. 43 for official highway maps of individual Upper Midwest states, 1924-1928.
47. National data on ton-miles of freight and passenger miles by type of carrier are from U.S. Census, Historical Statistics, and for years subsequent to 1970 are from Statistical Abstract. Locations of transmission lines and generating station are from U.S. Federal Power Commission, Electric Power Facilities (maps), 1978. Pipeline locations come from U.S. Geological Survey, Pipeline Transportation Systems (map), 1974; Oil and Gas Journal, 1978; "Map of Natural Gas Pipelines of the U.S. and Canada," Oil and Gas Journal, 1974; and U.S. Department of Energy, Major Natural Gas Pipelines, March 31, 1980 (map).
48. Data on intercity airline flights are from Official Airline Guide (North American edition), vol. 10, no. 5; and
Official Airline Guide (Worldwide edition), vol. 8, no. 10 (Oak Brook, 111.: Official Airline Guides, December 1983). Only one-stop and nonstop, one-plane intercity connections were counted. Commuter airline flights were included where paired metropolitan areas are less than 250 miles apart; numbers of commuter flights were multiplied by 0.2 to allow for difference in plane size, based on personal communication with Dr. Robert Britton, Republic Airlines, Minneapolis.
49. Data on volumes of telephone messages and first-class mail come from U.S. Census, Historical Statistics and Statistical Abstract for years subsequent to 1970. Data on electric power produced by each type of prime mover, power delivered, amount of coal used, and amount of power produced by coal, come from U.S. Census, Statistical Abstract and Historical Statistics. Coal equivalent of power delivered was calculated from those data.
50. Borchert and Adams, Trade Centers; Minneapolis Citizens League, The Twin Cities Economy, 1977, 40-41; U.S. Post Office Department, Office of Materials Handling, National Parcel Post Density Summary (Washington, D.C., 1965).
51. Based on the share of long-distance phone traffic to and from the Twin Cities which originated or terminated outside the Upper Midwest.
52. The amount of $1.7 billion (45% of aggregate Minneapolis-St. Paul metro personal income) equaled approximately 10% of the aggregate personal income of the rest of the banking region. If "export" employment accounted for 40% of the personal income in the average community (a "nonbasic" employment ratio of 1.5), then 30% of the basic income in the remainder of the region would have been earned from transactions with the rest of the world, other than the Twin Cities.
53. Robert C. Ostergren, "Land and Family in Rural Immigrant Communities," Annals of the Association of American Geographers 71 (1981), 400-411. Data on national origin of foreign-born by county are from U.S. Census of Population, 1910 and 1980. Indian population numbers are available for 1890 in volume 10 of the Eleventh Census of the United States: 1890.
54. League of Women Voters of Minnesota, Indians of Minnesota (St. Paul, 1974); Minnesota State Planning Agency, "Demographic Overview of Minnesota's Indian Population, 1980," Population Notes (St. Paul, 1983).
55. Data on population numbers, decennial change, births, deaths, and migration come from U.S. Census, Statistical Abstract and from Russell B. Adams, Population Mobility in the Upper Midwest (Minneapolis: Upper Midwest Economic Study, 1964).
56. See n. 55.
57. Minnesota Department of Energy, Planning, and Development, "Minnesotans Come from Northeast and North Central Area, Move to South and West," Population Notes (St. Paul, 1983). Migration data for 1975-1980 are from U.S. Census of Population 1980, cross-tabulations of 1980 and 1975 states of residence.
58. Neil C. Gustafson and Mark S. Cohan, Population Mobility in the Upper Midwest: Trends and Prospects (Minneapolis: Upper Midwest Council, 1974).
59. Chaucy D. Harris, "Agricultural Production in the United States: The Last Fifty Years and the Next," Geographical Review 47 (1957), 175-93, is a concise, comprehensive description of the changes in the first half of the twentieth century. Case studies include: John A. Alvin, "Jordan Country: A Golden Anniversary Look," Annals of the Association of American Geographers 71 (1981), 479-98; Darrell H. Davis, "The Return of the Forest in Northeastern Minnesota," Economic Geography 16 (1940), 171-87; Walter M. Kollmorgen and George Jenks, "Suitcase Farming in Sully County, South Dakota," Annals of the Association of American Geographers 49 (1958), 27-40; Kollmorgen and Jenks, "Suitcase Farming inToole County, Montana," Annuals of the Association of American Geographers 49 (1958), 209-31; R. W. Murchie and C. R. Wasson, Beltrami Island Resettlement Project (St. Paul: University of Minnesota Agricultural Experiment Station Bulletin 334, 1937).
60. John R. Borchert, "America's Changing Metropolitan Regions," in Hart, Regions of the United States.
Chapter 5. Concentration of Nonfarm Growth
61. Nonfarm population by county is derived from data on total population and farm population in the U.S. Census of Population for each decade 1940 through 1980. Data on numbers of seasonal homes are from U.S. Census of Housing, 1980. Value of land and buildings, and value of products sold, by county, are from the U.S. Census of Agriculture for 1920, 1974, and 1978. For years preceding 1940, total farm population was estimated by multiplying the number of farms from the U. S. Census of Agriculture by average household size from U.S. Census, Historical Statistics. Declines in farm population are due in part to changes in census definition of a farm, but that component does not affect the inferences or conclusions from the data.
62. John R. Borchert, George Orning, William Craig, and Leslie Maki, Minnesota's Lakeshore (Minneapolis:
University of Minnesota Center for Urban and Regional Affairs, 1970) part 1; Phillipe Cohen and Joseph Stinchfield, Minnesota Department of Natural Resources, Shoreland Development Trends (St. Paul, 1984); Roland Nichols, "Lakeshore Leisure Homes in Northwestern Wisconsin: A Geographical Analysis of the Twin Cities Ownership Pattern," Ph.D diss., University of Minnesota, 1968.
63. Glenn V. Fuguitt, Daniel Lichter, and Calvin Beale, Population Deconcentration in Metropolitan and Non-Metropolitan Areas of the United States, 1950-1975, University of Wisconsin College of Agriculture and Life Sciences, Population Series 70-15 (Madison, 1981); John Fraser Hart, "Population Change in the Upper Lake States," Annals of the Association of American Geographers 74 (1984), 221-43.
64. John R. Borchert, "Instability in American Metropolitan Growth," Geographical Review 73 (1983), 127-49.
Chapter 6. Reorganizing the Cities
65. John R. Borchert, David Gebhard, David Lanegran, and Judith Martin, Legacy of Minneapolis: Preservation amid Change (Minneapolis: Voyager Press, 1983), part 5; Michael Gleeson, "Estimating Housing Mortality," Journal of the American Planning Association 47 (1981), 185-94.
66. Descriptions, interpretations, and the accompanying maps of Fairmont, Fargo-Moorhead, Sioux Falls, Bismarck-Mandan, Billings, Duluth-Superior, and the Copper Range are based on both early and recent topographic maps of those areas published by the U.S. Geological Survey; field observations and interviews; historical photographs reviewed in the respective state historical society archives; Insurance Maps published in New York by the Sanborn Map Company for Fairmont (1917), Fargo (1922), Bismarck (1919), Duluth (1909), Superior (1914), Sioux Falls (1924), and Billings (1923); and information from the Federal Writers' Program Guides (see n. 45).
67. Warren Upham, Minnesota Geographic Names (1920; reprint, St. Paul: Minnesota Historical Society, 1969).
68. Arnold R. Alanen, "The Rise and Demise of A Company Town," Professional Geographer 24 (1977), 32-39; C. Langdon White and George Primmer, "The Iron and Steel Industry of Duluth," Geographical Review 27 (1937), 82-91; Lee Egerstrom, "As Ag Exporter Goes, So Goes the Railroad," St. Paul Pioneer Press, Dec. 26, 1983, B-3. Data from interview with Burlington Northern Railroad official, coupled with U.S. Department of Agriculture data on grain production in Burlington Northern's territory, indicate that about 44% of the region's grain moved to domestic markets and about 56% moved to foreign export in 1983. About three-fourths of the domestic flow moved eastward, mainly through Duluth-Superior; about 70% of the export trade moved to West Coast ports, and the remainder was divided about equally between Duluth-Superior and Gulf ports.
69. Ronald Abler, John S. Adams, and John R. Borchert, St. Paul and Minneapolis: The Twin Cities (Cambridge, Mass.: Ballinger Publishing Co., 1976); John R. Borchert, "The Twin Cities Urbanized Area: Past, Present, Future," Geographical Review 51 (1961), 47-70; Carol Brink, The Twin Cities (New York: Macmillan, 1961); Richard Hartshorne, "The Twin Cities District: A Unique Form of Urban Landscape," Geographical Review 22 (1932), 431-42; Judith Martin and David Lanegran, Where We Live: the Residential Districts of Minneapolis and St. Paul (Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 1983); Lindsay Schumacher et al., Orientation Study: Minneapolis-St. Paul Area (Bloomington, Minn.: K. Bordner Consultants, 1981); Twin Cities Metropolitan Council, The Structure of the Twin Cities Economy: An Input-Output Perspective (St. Paul, 1976); Citizens League Committee, Report of the Citizens League Committee on the Twin Cities Economy (Minneapolis, 1977).
70. Thomas Baerwald, "The Emergence of a New Downtown," Geographical Review 68 (1978), 308-18.
71. Edward L. Knudson, Regional Politics in the Twin Cities: A Report on the Politics and Planning of Regional Growth Policy (St. Paul: Twin Cities Metropolitan Council, 1976).
72. Corporate Report Magazine, Corporate Report Fact Book, 1983 (Minneapolis, 1983).
73. David Carr, "Public Pays Price of Development," Citybusiness, Sept. 26-Oct. 9, 1984, 30; Twin Cities Metropolitan Council, Regional Fiscal Profile (St. Paul, 1979).
74. Borchert, Gebhard, Lanegran, and Martin, Legacy of Minneapolis, ch. 5; and Gleeson, "Estimating Housing Mortality," Journal of Amer. Planning Assoc.
75. John R. Borchert, Earl E. Stewart, and Sherman Hasbrouck, Urban Renewal: Needs and Opportunities in the Upper Midwest, Upper Midwest Economic Study, Urban Rept. No. 5 (Minneapolis, 1963); John R. Borchert, Thomas L. Anding, Donald V. Klein, Ellis Waldron, and C. Lee Gilbert, The Why and How of Community Planning, Upper Midwest Economic Study, Urban Rept. No. 4 (Minneapolis, 1963); JohnR. Borchert, Thomas L. Anding, and Morris Gildemeister, Urban Dispersal in the Upper Midwest, Upper Midwest Economic Study, Urban Rept. No. 7 (Minneapolis, 1964). Those studies summarized the problems perceived and the policies emerging in urban communities of all sizes outside the Twin Cities metropolitan area in the aftermath of the post-World War II boom. One of the most interesting and effective programs was the North Dakota Community Development Program, whose actions are recorded for many years between 1960 and 1981 in the North Dakota Economic Development Commission County Data Files, State Archives, State Historical Society of North Dakota, Bismarck.
Chapter 7. Reorganizing the Region's Work
76. Data on incorporations and Dun and Bradstreet listed firms come from Statistical Abstract, editions of 1971 through 1984, and from U.S. Census, Historical Statistics.
77. Data on change in total employed population and increases in persons employed by private firms, by public agencies, self-employed, and unemployed, 1960-1980, are from U.S. Census, Statistical Abstract, 1962 and 1984.
78. Data on all employed persons come from the U. S. Census Bureau of Population, Social and Economic Characteristics, 2930, and from 1980 U.S. Census tapes provided by the University of Minnesota Center for Urban and Regional Affairs, the Minnesota Analysis and Planning System, and the Minnesota Land Management Information Center.
79. Estimates of dependence on agriculture were made by comparing state shares of the national totals of population and employment in agriculture, mining, transportation, and manufacturing. Results were compared with information in the office of Dr. Wilbur Maki, Minnesota State Economist, in personal communication, May 24, 1985. Data on part-time farming and characteristics of farm operators are from 1982 Lf. S. Census of Agriculture, Geographic Area Series, vol. 1 (Washington, D.C., 1984), ch. 1, table46, andch. 2, tableS; alsofromU.S. Census, Statistical Abstract, 1959 edition, tables 829 and 830, and 1984 edition, tables 1162 and 1163.
80. Data on employment in transportation, communication, and utilities by county of residence of employees are from U.S. Census of Population, Social and Economic Characteristics, 1940, and from U.S. Census tapes for 1980 (see n. 78).
81. Mining employment data come from U.S. Census of Mineral Industries (Washington, D.C., 1979).
82. Clyde F. Kohn and Raymond E. Specht, "The Mining of Taconite, Lake Superior Iron Mining District," Geographical Review 48 (1958), 528-39; Sanford Rose, "The Sponge Iron in Steel's Future," Fortune 95 (1977), 106-13; D. J. Tice, "The Thing of the Hill," Corporate Report, June
1983, 91-99, offer careful analysis of the evolution of the taconite industry's problems in the 1980s of excess capacity and possible replacements for lost jobs. North Dakota Economic Development Commission, Resources and North Dakota (Bismarck, 1982); Donald R. Nelson, "A Fuel and Its Money," Corporate Report, June 1983, provide data on the Great Plains coal gasification plant and analysis of its "ten-year survival of political, legal, and financial battles that have killed similar projects elsewhere."
83. Russell L. Olson, The Electric Railways of Minnesota (Minneapolis: Minnesota Transportation Museum, 1976).
84. Data on manufacturing and construction employees by county of residence are from U.S. Census of Population, Social and Economic Characteristics, 1940, and 1980 Census tapes (see n. 34). Data on production and nonproduction employees and on wages of production workers are from U. S. Census of Manufacturing for 1954 and 1977.
85. James Gray, Business without Boundary: The Story of General Mills (Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 1954); Virginia Houck, The Brand of Tartan: The 3M Story (New York: Appleton-Century-Crafts, 1955); C. W. Nessell, Honeywell: The Early Years (Minneapolis: Minneapolis-Honeywell Regulator Company, 1960).
86. John S. Adams et al., The Minnesota Economy (Minneapolis: Bureau of Business and Economic Research, University of Minnesota School of Management, 1981); Wilbur Maki, Peter Stenberg, and Mason Chen, Economic Importance of Export-Producing Industry in Minnesota (St. Paul: University of Minnesota Department of Agricultural and Applied Economics, 1981); Susan Van Mosch, Manufacturing Changes in the Twin Cities Economy (St. Paul: Twin Cities Metropolitan Council, 1983); Minnesota Department of Economic Development, Minnesota Directory of Manufacturers (St. Paul, 1981) and earlier editions; North Dakota Business and Industrial Development Department, Directory of North Dakota Manufacturing (Bismarck, 1981); Department of Administration, Division of Research and Information Services, Montana Directory of Manufacturers, 1980-81 (Helena: 1981); Department of Economic Development and Tourism, South Dakota Manufacturers and Processors Directory (Pierre, 1982).
87. "EMC Picks South Dakota Plant Site Over Minnesota," St. Paul Pioneer Press, Sept. 20, 1984, D-9, describes one of perhaps a dozen cases; data on comparative wage and local tax levels left virtually no doubt about the decisive role of differentials in state subsidies, taxes, and mandated labor benefits; James A. Papke and Leslie E. Papke, Investment Tax Incentives as State Industrial Policy (West Lafayette, Ind.: Purdue University Center for Tax Policy Studies, 1984), discusses "realities of the competitive environment" at that time in U. S. economic and political history, importance of tax incentives "to encourage economic development," and the public cost of those incentives in "reduced levels of public services or increased taxes on individuals and nonbenefitted businesses." This was a widely argued issue in the Upper Midwest.
88. "Firm Moves Offices to Duluth," St. Paul Pioneer Press, April 19, 1984, C-4.
89. See n. 65.
90. Data on wholesale and retail trade employment by county of residence are from U. S. Census of Population, Social and Economic Characteristics, 1940, and from Census tapes (see n. 78). Data on retail and wholesale sales by county, and detailed breakdowns by type of establishment are from U.S. Census of Business for 1929, 1958, and 1977.
91. John R. Borchert and Russell B. Adams, Trade Centers and Trade Areas of the Upper Midwest, Upper Midwest Economic Study, Urban Rept. No. 3 (Minneapolis, 1963); Neil C. Gustafson et al., Recent Trends/Future Prospects: A Look at Upper Midwest Population Changes (Minneapolis: Upper Midwest Council, 1973); Joan Finch, Upper Midwest Retail Trade Centers: The Structure of the Region (Minneapolis: Upper Midwest Council, 1977). The trade center classifications in these three studies are similar to one another but not identical. The classes used in the maps in this book were synthesized from those developed by Finch, Gustafson, and Borchert and Adams.
92. Robert H. Brown, Political-Areal-FunctionalOrganization, with Special Reference to St. Cloud, Minnesota, University of Chicago Department of Geography Research Paper No. 51 (Chicago, 1957); James R. Smith, The Geographic Range of Various Goods and Services Provided at Sioux Falls, South Dakota, 1965, Augustana College Press Monograph Series No. 2 (Sioux Falls, 1970); David Dahl, Preliminary Banking Markets (Minneapolis: Federal Reserve Bank, 1982), is a map that delineates areas within which a branch bank is "officially" within the same market area as its parent bank, for regulatory purposes, in the Ninth Federal Reserve District; Douglas Chittick, Growth and Decline of South Dakota Trade Centers, 1901-1951, South Dakota State Agricultural Experiment Station Bulletin No. 448 (Brookings, 1955); John R. Borchert, Upper Midwest Urban Change in the 1960s (Minneapolis: Upper Midwest Council, 1968). These studies document both the persistence of shopping and wholesale trade area boundaries and the profound changes in sizes and functions of the individual centers within each area during the auto era.
93. J. Dennis Lord, "Shifts in the Wholesale Trade Status of U.S. Metropolitan Areas/' Professional Geographer 36 (1984), 51-63 (for years 1948-1977); Larry Carlson, Dayton Hudson Corporation, Office of Area Planning and Development, personal communication, Minneapolis, 1984.
94. Joseph Dorfman, Thorstein Veblen and His America (New York: Viking Press, 1945). Data on service employees by county of residence are from U.S. Census of Population, Social and Economic Characteristics, 1940 and from 1980 Census tapes (see n. 78).
95. Corporate Report Magazine, Corporate Report Fact Book, of which the annual editions 1968 to present provide fiscal, historical, locations, employment, and management personnel data on Upper Midwest business corporations, both publicly and privately held; Moody's Investment Service, Moody's Industrial Manual (New York), published annually, is a source of data on national locations of foreign operations of General Mills, Pillsbury, 3M, and Honeywell; John Merwin, "Let's Make a Deal," Forbes, (Nov. 21, 1983, 84-92, provides data on Citibank operations in Sioux Falls, after South Dakota's "stagnant population" had struggled for years with "a punishing climate, erratic rainfall, and ungenerous geography." Also David Shaffer, "Minneapolis Seeing Stars on Horizon," St. Paul Pioneer Press, Dec. 26, 1984, C-l ff., has data on local production of movies, TV commercials, special productions, videos, and industrial films; Dale Jester, "Travelling Trophies," Corporate Report, June 1984, 71-75, gives data on products and sales of business incentive travel agencies based in Twin Cities.
96. John R. Borchert, "Major Control Points in American Economic Geography," Annals of the Association of American Geographers 68 (1978), 214-32.
97. John R. Borchert, Entrepreneurshipand Future Employment in Minnesota (St. Paul: Minnesota State Planning Agency for the Commission on Minnesota's Future, 1975).
98. "Where Entrepreneurs Grow," Forbes, Feb. 28, 1983, 52-53; also "The Up-and-Comers," Forbes, is an annual listing of several hundred medium-size corporations with the strongest statistical chance to attain ranking in the top one thousand corporations within a decade (listings for 1980-1983).
99. "The Other Favorite Fifty," Forbes, Feb. 28, 1983, 132-33.
100. Corporate Report Magazine, Corporate Report Fact Book, 1968-present.
101. Jay Novak, Jean Goble, and Nina Shepherd, "Additions to the Corporate Payroll," Corporate Report, Feb. 1985, 37-49, and previous annual reports of acquisitions and mergers involving Upper Midwest firms, 1979 through 1983.
102. Paul H. Banner and Francis D. Brosnan, Jr., "Labor Productivity in Rail Transport," Rail Freight, Transportation Research Record Series, No. 917 (Washington, D.C.: National Academy of Sciences/Transportation Research Board, 1983) 29-34.
103. Don W. Larson, Land of the Giants: A History of Minnesota Business (Minneapolis: Dorn Books, 1979); Carol Pine and Susan Mundale, Self-Made (Minneapolis: Dorn Books, 1982); Carol Pine, "Old Wealth and New Wealth," Corporate Report, July 1978, 41-44ff.
104. Data on government employees by county of residence come from 1980 Census tapes (see n. 78); federal, state, and local government revenue and employment data, and data on physicians, hospital beds, and nursing home beds per capita are drawn from U.S. Census, Statistical Abstract of the United States, 1981 and U.S. Census of Governments, 1977.
105. John R. Borchert, Taxes and the Minnesota Community (Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Center for Urban and Regional Affairs, 1979); Ted Kolderie, Many Providers, Many Producers: A New View of the Public Service Industry (Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Hubert H. Humphrey Institute of Public Affairs, 1982).
106. Advisory Commission on Intergovernmental Relations, Regional Growth: Historical Perspective (Washington, D.C., 1980); Jerry Gerlach, "A Spatial View of Military Spending in the United States, 1980" (paper delivered at the annual meetings of the Association of American Geographers, 1983, text provided by personal communication); Thomas B. Connery, "Guns and Butter," Corporate Report, Sept. 1983, 19-20; Jay Novak, "The Land of Milk and Money," Corporate Report, Feb. 1983, 58-64; Wayne Nelson, "Farm Supports: Congress Struggles with a Runaway Budget," Citybusiness, Aug. 3, 1983, 19-20; Lee Egerstrom, "U.S. Role in Farm Lending Re-examined," St. Paul Pioneer Press/Dispatch, Oct. 17, 1983, B-lff. The first three studies deal with federal defense expenditures in the region; the last three with agricultural subsidies.
107. Raymond H. Merritt, Creativity, Conflict, and Controversy: A History of the St. Paul District, U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1979).
108. Data on military employees and personnel by county of residence are from Census tapes for 1980 (see n. 78).
109. See n. 103.
110. Paul Berman and Sara Peterson, "The Cost of Public Education," in An Assessment of Minnesota K-12 Education (Berkely, Calif.: Berman, Weiler Associates, 1984), part R-105, offers extensive interstate comparisons; Clarke A. Chambers, "Welfare on Minnesota's Iron Range," Upper Midwest History 3 (1983), 1-40, is an analysis of 1900-1920 development of tax-welfare relationships which profoundly affected Minnesota state and local government expenditure patterns.
111. Edwin A. Willson, Rural Changes in Western North Dakota, North Dakota Agricultural Experiment in Station Bulletin No. 214 (Fargo, 1928).
112. John R. Borchert, "Instability in American Metropolitan Growth," Geographical Review 73 (1983), 127-49; Cargill Incorporated, World Grain Trade in Focus (Minneapolis, 1983).
113. Karl W. Butzer, "Adaptation to Global Environmental Change," Professional Geographer 32 (1980), 269-78.
114. Each county population was projected by assuming that the county's share of the U.S. population change would be the same over the decades of the 1980s and 1990s as it was during the decade of the 1970s. The U.S. Bureau of the Census Series B projection for the United States as a whole was used as the source of U.S. projected national population change. The result was almost identical with official state agency projections for the year 2000 for almost all counties in the region. In a few counties, with relatively small populations, my projections were above the official projections. In a few metropolitan counties, official projections were higher. In both cases, I accepted the higher of the two projections. Sources of official county population projections for each state: Iowa: Iowa Census Data Center, Bulletin Board (Des Moines, July 5, 1984), Michigan: not available at time of writing, March 1984; Minnesota: State Demography Unit, Minnesota Department of Energy, Planning, and Development, Minnesota Population Projections, 1980-2010 (St. Paul, May 1983); Montana: Revised Population Projections (Helena, 1983); North Dakota: Richard W. Rathge and F. Larry Leistritz, Population Projections for Age and Gender, 1980-2000, Series 1 (Fargo: North Dakota Agricultural Experiment Station, 1982); South Dakota State Planning Bureau, Projections of South Dakota Population, 1980-200, Series 2 (Pierre: 1980); Wisconsin: Wisconsin Department of Administration, Population Projections, 1980-2010 (Madison, 1983).
Chapter 8. Income, Wealth, and Quality of Life
115. Personal income data are from U.S. Census of Population, Social and Economic Characteristics, for 1950 and
1980. Incomes for 1949 were multiplied by 3.28 to convert them to 1979 dollars; the conversion factor was derived from GNP price deflator published annually in the U.S. Census, Statistical Abstract, and published for each year, 1970 and earlier, in Historical Statistics of the United States, Colonial Times to 1970. Data on total bank deposits and savings and loan deposits by county are from U.S. Census County and City Data Book 1982 (Washington, D.C., 1983); Mathew Shane, The Flow of Funds through the Commercial Banking System, Minnesota and North Dakota (St. Paul:
University of Minnesota Department of Agricultural and Applied Economics, 1971).
116. Borchert, Taxes and the Minnesota Community.
117. Richard Boyer and David Savageau, Places Rated Almanac (Chicago: Rand McNally, 1981), provides explanations and definitions of criteria and evaluation scales, 1-371; scores and overall ranks of 277 metropolitan areas, 372-78; quotation from 296; The AMBA Executive 6 (June 1977), 1-32.
118. Vilhjalmur Stefansson, "The Colonization of the
Northern Lands," in Climate and Man, Yearbook of Agriculture (Washington, D.C.: U.S. Department of Agriculture, 1941), 205-16, quotation from 208.
119. William G. Ouchi, The M-Form Society: How American Teamwork Can Capture the Competitive Edge (Reading, Mass.: Addison-Wesley Publishing, 1984).
120. Interviews in Corporate Report, November 1983, 23-26; "U Ranks Third in Private Support," University of Minnesota Report 11 (June 1980), 8.